RUSSIAN-CHINESE RELATIONS: 1991-1998

 

Compilation: Andrew Andersen, 1998

 

(With the Emphasis on RFE)

Period: 1991 1998

 

1991

 

16/05

Moscow:

An Agreement signed re.new demarcation of Soviet-Chinese border (Eastern sector)signed in Moscow.It includes exchange of several lots of territory.

 

The agreement passed the Supreme Soviet of RSFSR (since 09/91 RF)

 

 

27/12

Mainland China recognized RF

 

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1992

 

Important events:

 

1. In 1992 the International Council on Sattelites Watching the Earth was created.

Participants: USA, EU, Japan, Russia and China represented exclusively by space and astronautic organizations.

2. Established direct contacts between Superior Courts of RF and M.China.

 

3. Contract between administratuion of Kirin province and Maritime Territory (Primorski Krai) re. lease of the port of Zarubino.(see map by A.Andersen)

 

 

 

31/01 New York:

President Boris Yeltsin met the Chairman of the State Council of Mainland China Lee Peng

 

February

200 Military pilots from China became students of Krasnodar AF Academy. They are to study Russian Su-27 interceptor-destroyer aircrafts.

 

13/02

Supreme Soviet of RF passed the bill on demarcation of Russian-Chinese border (Eastern Sector - 4300km)

 

25/02

Constant Committee of Chinese National Assembly

passed the same bill (still with the word "Soviet" instead of "Russian" in order to "avoid legal complications"). Russia is at the same time recognized as the legatee of the USSR.

 

According to the bill:

- China acquires 15 square km. of territory of Russian Maritime territory (in Ussuri, Khassan and Hankai districts), plus Damanski island (in Ussuri river).

 

- The islands of Grand Ussuriyskiy and Tabarov (in Argun river) still remain disputed but stay under jurisdiction of RF.

 

 

27/02 - 02.03

Chief of General Staff of United CIS Forces, Dep.Commander in Chief of CIS Forces V. Samsonov visited China.

 

Agreement: in 1992-93 Russia is to deliver to China

24 Su-27 fighter-interceptor aircrafts.

 

 

05/03 - 09/03

Beijing:

Russian Minister of Foreign Economic Relations (P.Aven)

met Dep.Chairman of Central Military Council (Lu Xuazin)

 

Discussed:

- bilateral military-technical collaboration

- a number of contracts

 

05/03

Intergovernmental Agreement on Most Favored Bilateral Trade and Economic Cooperation signed.

 

23/03 - 16/04

Beijing:

Bilateral talks re. the types of arms and arms' components that were to be reduced in the border area.

 

July

China recieved and started testing the first group of Russian-made Su-27 interceptor-destroyer aircrafts.

 

From some official sources there came information regarding 24 more aircrafts of the same type to be delivered to China in the future ("Yomiuri")

 

27/04 - 04/05

Official visit to Russia of the the delegation of the Main Department of the Rear of PLAC ("People's Liberating Army of China") headed by Zhao Nanzi

 

 

09/07

Moscow: 1st Session of Joint Demarcation Comission re. the demarcation of the Eastern Sector of Russian-Chinese border. (There were 6 sessions of the above Comissions that took part between Juy-92 and July-95)

 

 

18 - 19/08

Moscow: First session of Intergovernmental Comisssion on Economic and Trade Cooperation.

 

24 - 31/o8

Defence Minister of China (Tsin Xxivyi)paid an official visit to Russia.

Talks with Pavel Grachev (Def.Min. of Russia).

Discussed:

- Possible fields of military cooperation (predominantly in technological field)

- Possible delivery to China from Russia MiG-37 aircrafts

- Possible delivery to China Russian-made antiaircraft systems

- Further arms decrease in NEA region.

 

 

8/10

Minsk (Belarus)

An Agreement signed between China and 4 CIS members (Russia, Kazakstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan) having border with China re.: future talks on the border issues. The above 4 states are to form one joint delegation to talk to the Chinese party.

 

 

15/10

RF President Yeltsin signed a decree on Russian-Taiwanese relationship.

Major points:

- Taiwan is an unalienable part of China.

- Details on legal and diplomatic parameters of Russo-Taiwanese relationship.

 

 

18 - 22/10

1st Deputy Defence minister A. Kokoshin paid a visit to China.

 

17 - 19/12

Official visit of President Yeltsin to China.

24 documents signed. Among them:

 

1. Joint Declaration on the basis of bilateral relations

2. Intergovernmental Agreement on Astronautic partnership

3. Memorandum on mutual understanding between the governments of Russia and China re.mutual trust and mutual arms built-down in the border area

4. Memorandum on mutual understanding re. cooperation in the field of military technology.

 

 

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1993

 

29/01

Moscow:

A bilateral agreement was signed re.: visiting without obtaining entrance visas for Russian and Chinese citizens possessing Service and Diplomatic Passports.

 

5 - 15/04

Commander-in-Chief of Naval Forces of PLAC, Counter-Admiral Xian Lanchung.

 

June:

Deputy-Chairman of Defence Counsil Lyu Huatsing paid an official visit of friendship" to Russia

 

Talks with Prime-Minister Victor Chernomyrdin and his deputy A. Shokhin.

Major topic: promotion of further bilateral cooperation in the field of conversion of military industry.

 

 

9/06

Moscow: an Agreement signed re.:cooperation between the twin-towns Moscow and Beijing.

 

9 - 17/08

PLAC Chief of Staff Zhan Vanyang paid an official visit to Russia.

Talks with Rus. Defence Minister Pavel Grachev and his deputy A.Kokoshin.

Topics discussed:

- Collaboration in the field of military technology

- Future delivery of Russian military equipment to China

 

23 - 27/08

Group of ships of Russian Pacific Forces paid a visit to Tsigtao (first one for the last 30 years).

 

October:

Chief of RF Border Guard Forces visited China.

Result: parties agreed on preparing documents re.: collaboration of the two border services.

 

8 - 11/11

Official visit of RF Defence Minister Pavel Grachev to China.

Result: Signed Agreement on 5 year period of military cooperation between the two Defence Ministries.

 

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1994

 

26 - 29/01

RF Foreign Minister Andrey Kozyrev paid a visit to China.

Agreement re. future visit of the Chairman of China (Qiang Qeming) to Russia during the 3d quarter of 1994.

 

Agreement signed on the checkpoints on Russo-Chinese border aiming at simplification of the boarder crossing prosedures.

 

Protocol signed on political consulting meetengs between FA Ministries of both countries.

 

5 more documents signed.

 

 

10 - 17/03

Harbin: 36th Session of Russo-Chinese Comission on Border Rivers' Navigation.

Both parties presented their reports on the year 1993 and worked out plans for 1996.

 

25/03

Moscow: visit of Dep.Director of Chinese National Astronautic Administration.

Result: An agreement signed re.: cooperation between Russian National Space Agency and Chinese National Astronautic Administration.

 

11 - 14/04

CS of Russian Air Forces Colonel-General Michael Kolesnikov paid a visit to China.

 

25/05

Parliamentary hearings in the State Duma re.: the state of affairs and future perspectives of Russo-Chi. relationships.

 

14 - 18/05

Group of Russian legislators headed by the Duma Chairman Ivan Rybkin, visited China.(First visit of Rus. legislators to China)

Rybkin met with the Chairman of "The People's Republic od China" Qiang Qeming.

Discussed: possible new forms of bilateral cooperation.

 

17 - 20/06

A group of ships of PLAC Naval Forces paid a visit to Vladivostok.

 

25/06

Seconf Session of Russo-Chinese Comission on Economic, Trade & Technical Cooperation.

Russia was represented by the Dep.Prime Minister Alex Shokhin

China was represented by the Dep.Chairman of State Council Ly Lantsing.

Discussed:

- new forms of bilateral trade

- border trade problems

- cooperation in the field of agriculture

- knowhow transfer

Major spheres of Chinese interests in Russia are:
1.Space Navigation

2.Chemistry

3.Machinery

4.Pharmacy

5.Transportation

 

26 - 29/05

Official visit of RF Prime-Min. V. Chernomyrdin to China.

Talks to Chinese Prime-Minister Ly Peng and the Chairman of "The People's Republic od China" Qiang Qeming.

Agreement signed re.:border regime between Russia and China,

plus 6 other documents, among them - "the Agreement on No Double-Taxation and Cooperation in the Field of Tax Collection"

 

Major goal of the visit: further development of bilateral economic and trade cooperation.

 

Also discussed:

- Border problems

- Peculiatrities of economic reform politics in both countries

 

 

27 - 29/06

Official visit to Russia by Dep. Chairman of the State Council of China Tsyang Tsicheng.

Talks to Pres. Yeltsin, FA Minister A. Kozyrev and other leaders of RF.

 

11 - 16/07

Official visit to Russia by Chinese Defence Minister Chi Khaotang.

Talks to Russian colleague Pavel Grachev.

An Agreement on "Dangerous Military Actions Prevention" signed which was aimed at border incidents' prevention.

 

 

30/08

Beijing: Arrival of the official delegation of the Federation Council of RF (Upper Chamber of the Parliament) headed by the Dep. Chairman of the Economic reform Committee Vladimir Sergeyenkov

and the delegation of the State Duma (Lower Chamber of the Parliament) headed by the Deputy-Chairman Alexander Vengerovski.

 

 

2 - 6/09

Official visit to RF by the Chairman of "The People's Republic od China" Qiang Qeming.

Talks to Pres.B.Yeltsin and PM V.Chernomyrdin;

Meetings with the State Duma Chairman I.Rybkin and Federation Council speaker Vladimir Shumeiko.

 

Signed:

- Russo-Chinese Declaration on the "New Principles of Constructive Bilateral Parthenrship".

 

-Joint Declaration of President Yeltsin and Chairman Jiang re.: Non-aiming of Strategic Nuclear Head Missiles at Each Other and N--First-Use of Nuclear Weapons.

 

Qiang Qeming visited National Center of Space Navigation in Kaliningrad (By Moscow).

 

3/09

Moscow:

Both FA Ministers (Kozyrev and Tsyang Tsicheng) signed an Agreement on the Western Sector of Russo-Cinese Border

 

This Agreement passed through the Federation Council on 05/07/95.

NB.: the Western Sector (Between Xinjiang Uigur Auton. District and Altay Territory)is 55 km long. There were no agreement signed by Russia and China re. this sector.

 

 

24 - 28/09

Chinese delegation headed bu the Ambassador Vang Ganghua visited Transbaykal Military District.

Talks re.: mutual building down arms and mutual trust promotion in the Frontier area.

 

1 - 5/11

Commander of Naval Forces of RF, Admiral Felix Gromov paid an official visit to China.

 

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1995

 

FEBRUARY.

Maritime Territorial Duma (Parliament)started the session "Regarding the intolerable attempts to break Russo-Chinese Border Agreement of 1860".

 

Resolution:

- All demarcation work at the Eastern Sector should be immediately stopped.

- Special Maritime Comission should be formed to take part in the talks with the Chinese party.

 

 

10/02

Khabarovsk: An agreement signed re.: collaboration of Russian and Chinese Border Guard Services in the field of prevention of border rejime violations.

 

14/02

Russian FA officially confirmed the fact of delivery of Russian submarines to China.

It also made a statement re. the limited character of the above delivery.

 

MARCH:

Official visit to Tokyo by FA Minister A. Kozyrev. In Tokyo he met the Chairman of "The People's Republic od China" Qiang Qeming.

Discussed: local conflicts and major principles of Russo-Chinese parthnership.

 

27/03

"Yabloko" leader Grigory Yavlinsky paid a visit to China.

 

4 - 5/04

Cita: Meeting of the representatives of Transbaikal Border Guard service with their colleagus from the Inner Mongolia Military District.

 

7 - 9/05

Official visit to Moscow by the the Chairman of "The People's Republic od China" Qiang Qeming re. the celebration of the end of WW-2.

Topics of discussion:

- Promotion of bilateral trade

- Promotion of cooperation in technical, scientific, humanitarian, cultural and military spheres.

 

 

12/05

Russo-Chinese consulting meeting (at the level of Dep.FA Ministers).

Among the topics discussed:

- Both parties expressed their negative attitude towards the expansion of NATO

 

15 - 19/05

Official visit of RF Defence Minister Grachev to China.

Grachev visited Nanking, Shanghai, Peijing, Guizhou und Shengjen.

For the first time in history RF Def. Minister met with the Chairman of "The People's Republic od China" Jiang Jeming.

Major topic discussed:

Further collaboration in the sphere of military technology.

 

17 - 21/06

Beijing: visit of Moscow Mayor Luzhkov.

Document signed by Luzhkov and the Mayor of Beijing re. cooperation between Moscow and Beijing ("the twin towns").

 

JULY

Khabarovsk:

Visit of Chinese military delegation headed by the Commander of Shengyang Military District Colonel-General Vang Ke.

Meeting with the commander of the Maritime Military District of RF Colonel-General Victor Chechevatov.

 

 

25 - 28/07

Official visit of the Chairman of the State Council (Prime Minister) Ly Peng to RF.

Meeting with Boris Yeltsin and Prime-Minister Chernomyrdin.

Signed:

Joint Declaration, plus the Package of 7 documents.

Important!:

The parties agreed on making all birateral trade operations in US Dollars and other hard currency.

 

Among the above documents signed: an agreement on the construction of a bridge accross the Amur (Heilong)river that will establish connection between the cities of Blagoveschensk and Heihe.Both sssparties are to invest $US 72.000.000 altogether into the above project.

 

JUNE
Moscow:

3d Session of Bilateral Intergovernmental Comission ot Economic and Trade Cooperation.

Important:

Both parties agreed on additional certification of the goods delivered from both countries to each other in order to prevent the delivery of low quality goods.

 

 

AUGUST

Chita:

One of regular sessions of Russian and Chinese demarcation groups responsible for the fulfillment of the 1991 Agreement.

The islands of the estuaries of Bira and Sungari rivers became "stable disputable territories".

 

 

14/08

Moscow:

Visit of Deputy Foreign Trade Minister Sun Zheyui

Goal: realization of the agreements of June-95 signed during the visit of Ly Peng.

Meeting with his Russian colleague Mikhail Fradkov.

 

22 - 26/08

Visit to China of Federal Border Guard Service Director (FPS) A. Nikolayev.

Meeting with Chinese Defence Minister Chi Haotyang, PLAC Chief of Staff Zhan Vanyang and State Security Minister Tao Syxui.

Agreement on collaboration in the guarding of joint border.

 

15/09

One more protocol on cooperation in border guarding was signed during the visit of Chinese military delegation headed by the Commander of Heilongjiang Provincial Border District Van Guitqing

 

21/09

Moscow: Visit of FA Minister Qyang Qicheng. Talks with Rissian FA Minister A. Kozyrev.

Topics discussed:
- Details on the upcoming visit of Boris Yeltsin to China

- International politics with the emphasis on the situation in Bosnia-Herzegovina.

 

24 - 29/10

Official visit to China of the Commander of Russian Air Forces P. Deynekin.

Talks with the Chairman of Central Military Council Lyu Huaqing, his Deputy Chief of General Staff Phu Quang, Commander of Chinese Air Forces Yui Zhengyu and the representatives of Nanking Military District Command.

 

Mentioned: more than 40 Chinese pilots finished Russian training program and practiced flights on Russian SU-27 aircrafts.

 

30/10

Moscow: visit of Chinese military delegation headed by the Chief of Military Training Programs at the General Staff of PLAC Major-General Qui Phanheng.

 

31/10

Visit to Beijing by Russian delegation headed by the Minister of Fuel and Power Engineering Yuriy Shafranick.

Goal: Talks with Chin. colleagues re. cooperation in a number of concrete projects.

 

NOVEMBER

Important events:

1.

Russia delivered One submarine of "Warszawyanka" type to the Chinese naval forces (this was the second finished submarine deal between Russia and China).

NB: In terms of NATO Certification "Warszawyanka" is similar to the "Kilo" type of submarines.

 

2.

A group of Chinese military specialists visited Tula (one of the major centers of Russian military industry in Central Russia).

Talks with the "Splav" State company regarding the delivery of volley-firing missile systems to China.

 

 

27/11

Visit of the delegation of Liberal-Democratic fraction of Russian Parliament to China (LDPR is one of the major "red-brown" anti-western parties of RF lead by Vladimir Zhirinowski). The delegation was invited by the leadership of United National Front of China.

 

30/11

The successful end of all demarcation works at the Eastern Sector of Russo-Chinese border.The border was moved back to Russian territory for the distance ranging between 5 and 350 meters.

 

As a resul, only in Ussuri District of Maritime Territ. Russians transferred to China more than 900 Hectars of Cedar forests and hunting grounds.

 

2 - 8/12

official visit of Chinese Governmental delegation to Russia.The head of the delegation was Dep.Chairman of Central Military Counsil Lu Huaxing.

Goal:

Taking part in the 4th Session of Ru-Chin. Intergovernmental Comission on Military Technological Cooperation.

 

The group visited military industrial plants in Tula;

 

Talks with Rus. Defence Minister P. Grachev

Discussed : Military cooperation, tdelivery of weapons and military technology (from Russia to China)

 

Talks with Prime Minister V. Chernomyrdin.

Discussed :

- Cooperation in the sphwere of conversion of military industry.

- Cooperation in the field of Space navigation and Astronautics.

- Cooperation in the field of digital technology

- Possible delivery of Russian aircrafts YAK-42 and TU-204 to China.

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1996

 

31/01

1st session of Russo-Chinese Demarcation Comission of the Western Sector.

The head of Russian delegation, Ambassador Henrich Korneyev mentioned that the session concentratyed on working out various documents regulating all demarcation works and instructions on border signs and their positioning.

 

 

FEBRUARY

 

Important events:

 

- Commander-in-Chief of Russian Air Forces General Deykin mentioned that Russian-Chinese deal on the SU-27 fighter aircrafts also includes the licence for their production that had been issued to China.

 

22/02

President Yeltsin signed a decree on completion of all the demarcation works in the Eastern sector of Russo-Chinese border.

 

31/03

Visit to Moscow by the Chairman of the Constant Committee of Chinese National Assembly Qiao Shi.

 

Meeting with the Chairman of the Federaton Counsil Yegor Stroyev.

Agreement on constant interparliamentary contact.

 

APRIL

INCOMBANK was the first Russian bank to open its branch in Beijing.

 

24 - 26/04

Official visit of President Yeltsin to China. Both leaders made declarations on bilateral cooperation aimed at reaching a "strategic mutual understanding in the 21st century".

 

15 agreements signed, predominantly in the spheres of

- trade/economic cooperation

- power engineering

- space research

- techniocal/scientific cooperation.

 

Yeltsin came with an initiative of creating "Russian-Chinese Committee on Friendship, Peace and Development".

 

Russia offered to credit China with 2.5 billion $US for the purchase of Russian-made nuclear power station equipment, as well as for paying the wages to Russian nuclear specialists contracted by China.

 

The first Russian-made nuclear power station was to be completed by October, 1996 in Liaoning.

.

 

Documents signed:

 

- Joint Russian-Chinese declaration

- Agreement on cooperation in nuclear power sphere

- Agreement on copyright and intellectual property protection

- Agreement on promoting further cooperation in the sphere of power engineering

- Agreement on cooperation in space research

- Agreement on "Moscow-Beijing Hotline"

- Agreement the Khanka (Xingkai) international park

- Agreement on cooperation in the sphere of sports

- Agreement on cooperation in the field of monetary control

- Agreement on cooperation in antymonopoly programs

- Agreement on economic cooperation cooperation in 1996

- Agreement on cooperation in certifying imported and exported products

- Agreement on cooperation in prevention of illegal drug and psychotrophic products' proliferation and misuse

- Agreement on cooperation in the sphere of nuclear security (between Chinese National Agency for Nuclear Security and Russian Federal Committee on nuclear security /Federalnyj Nadzor Rossiji po Yadernoi i Radiotsionnoi Bezopasnosti/)

 

 

25/04

one more intergovernmental Agreement Signed re. bilateral cooperation in the field of exploiting natural gas fields of Mainland China and finding new ones in the areas open for foreign participation (regulated by Chinese legislation only).

Organizations responsible for all the projects covered by the above agreement:

 

Russian

1. RF Ministry of Fuels and Power Engineering

2. GAZPROM Joint-stock Company

Chinese

3. Chinese National Oil and Natural Gas Corporation

 

 

26/04

Shanghai:

Leaders of Russia, China, Kazakstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan signed the "Agreement on Trust in the Frontier Area".

 

JUNE

Beijing: Consulting meeting of the representatives of Rus. and Chinese FA Ministries.

Topics discussed:

- Situation on Korean peninsula

- Asia-Pasific security issues

- Integration of Russia into Asia-Pacific Realm

- Situation in South and South-East Asia.

 

15/07

Visit of RF Federal Border Guard Service Director Andrey Nikolayev to China.

A package of protocols signed between RF Federal Border Guard Service and Chinese Security Ministry.

Most of the documents of the package concentrate on regulating information and experience exchange, as well as on the procedure of bilateral contacts.

 

25/07

Jakarta:

Meeting of FA Minisrters of RF and China (Eugeniy Primakov and Qiang Qicheng)

Major topic discussed :

- Interaction of Russia and China with the ASEAN

 

21/08

Moscow: First conference called " Russia and China: Perspectives of Cooperaton", organized by the Institute od Actual International Problems at the Diplomatic Academy of FA Ministry, Hongkong University and "Chinese Weekley Revue".

major idea of the conference was that some divergence between Russian and Chinese approach to major problems of the world politics are temporal and should disappear as a result of "step-by-step adjusting" mainly by means of intergovernmental consultings and bilateral talks.

 

 

SEPTEMBER:

Visit to Russia by the Deputy Minister of Inspection Khe Yun.

Met with Alxey Koudrin of Presidental Administration.

Visited RF Statistic Chamber and Finance Ministry.

 

16 - 21/09

Tokyo: 96th Interparliamentary World Conference (delegations from 133 nations).

Russian delegation was headed by the State Duma Chairman Gennadiy Seleznev (communist fraction).

 

23/09

New York:

While taking part in the 51st Session of UNO General Assembly, Russian FA Minister Primakov met Chinese FA Minister Qian Qicheng.

Signed:
Treaty on Nuclear Tests Prohibition.

 

23/09

Official visit of the Chairman of Chinese National Committee of People's Political Consulting Council Ly Zhuihuang to Moscow.

 

Meetings with the State Duma Chairman G.Seleznev and Prime Minister V. Chernomyrdin.

Discussed current work on realization of April-96 agreements (during the Visit of B. Yeltsin to China).

Important: Lee Zhiihuang mentioned that China would support Russia's application for joining APEC.

 

OCTOBER:

Important events:

Visit tio China by RF Atomic Energy Minister Victor Mikhailov.

 

A protocol signed by Mikhailov and Chinese National Nuclear Corporation re. the acceleration of construction of uranium dressing plants (Russian-Chinese joint project).

 

Also Russia agreed on the relocation of the projected nuclear power station from Liaoning to Jiangsu province.

 

24/10

Official visit of Federation Counsil Chairman Yegor Stroyev to China.

 

NOVEMBER:

Important events:


Beijing:

Collaboration agreement signed between Russian INCOMBANK and the Bank of China. The agreement includes high-class service exchange.

 

14 - 19/11

Visit to Russia by Chinese military delegation headed by the Commander of PLAC Air Forces Yui Zhengyu.

 

The delegation examined Russian polyfunctional combat aircrafts including the latest version of SU-27 and MiG-31, as well as the examples of the "5th Generation" of Russian combat aircrafts including the SU-37 fighter and SU-39 destroyer.

 

17 - 19/11

Official visit of FA Minister Primakov to China.

Meetings withj the Chairman of "People's Republic of China" Qian Qeming and Prime Minister Lee Peng.

Discussed: "Strategic cooperation" of China and Russia in the 21st century.

 

 

9 - 13/12

Beijing:

A protocol on military technical cooperation signed between RF and China.

 

Important: both parties agreed on the delivery of Russian-made destroyer ships of "Modern"/"Sovremennyj" type, as well as on modernization of already existing Chinese combat ships with Russian participation.

 

10/12

Beijing:

Following the April-96 visit of Yeltsin,a session of Russian-Chinese comission on Economic Cooperation took place in Beijing.

 

Russia was represented by the first Dep.Prime Minister Alexey Bolshakov and Director General of Russian Astronautic Agency Yuriy Koptev.

 

An Agreement on bilateral cooperation in the field of Astronautics, Space Navigation and Space Research was planned for being signed in future.

26 - 28/12

Ly Peng paid a visit to Moscow.

Talks with Chernomyrdin.

Signed a Parthnership Agreement between the Peoples Bank of China and the Central Bank of Russia.

The agreement prescribes information exchange and regular consulting meetings.

The agreemend is concluded for 3-year term with possible prolongation.

 

11 - 27/12

22nd round of the talks between Cinese experts and the joint gdelegation of Russia, Kazakstan, Kyrghyzstan and Tajikistan.re. military build down at the frontier area.

 

An outline of future legal documents defining the amounts of military personnel at the frontier area was worked out.

 

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1997

 

 

20/01

Dep. FA Ministers Grigory Karasin and Jian Deguan discussed the transfer of the Soviet-owned real estate property in China under Russian jurisdiction.

 

01/02

Intergovernmental agreement signed re.the simplification of border-crossing procedures at the Kani-Kurghan-Changphatuang temporal crossing point for the personal engaged in the construction of the bridge across Amur river, as well as the quicker and easier transference of equipment, building material and vehicles.

 

 

15/04

Official visit to China by RF Defence Minister Igor Rodionov.

Rodionov met with Colonel-General Lyu Huaxing of Central Defence Counsil. (General Lyu is responsible for military technical cooperation with Russia)

 

16/04

An agreement signed between Russian state "Rosvooruzhenije"Company (involved in arms export/import) and Chinese Defence Ministry regarding the renovation and fixing of Chinese diesel submarines at RFE "Zvezda" plant (exact location of the plant is unknown).

 

22 - 27/04

Chairman of thwe "People's Rep.of Chin" Qian Qeming paid an official visit to Russia.

 

A "Declaration Polypolar World and the New World Order" was signed by the Chairman and the President.

The declaration contains an outline of Russian and Chinese points of view re. major world problems (in cases when the Chin. and Russian approach is more or less the same).

 

Topics discussed during the talks:

- Perspectives of projected Tomsk-Shanghai Trans-Aasian gas pipeline.

- Projected Russo-Chinese Committee for Friendship, Peace and Development.

- Military-Techn. cooperation (some frozen projects released).

 

24/04

Moscow: Presidents of Russia, China, Kazakstan, Kyrghyzstan signed an agreement on cinqualateral military build down along their borders with China (7.500 KM altogether), as well as on the creation of a 100-mile "stability zone"(100 miles deep both sides of the border). However the agreement contains no concrete figures or fixed amounts of troops in the border area.

 

20/05

Moscow:

Russia and China outlined the future intergovernmental agreement on joint condominum over disputed islands and surrownding aquatoria(defined area of the rivers in which the islands are). The future agreement should also define the principles of the islands' economy, so that the traditional way of life of the islands' inhabitants would not change.

 

Russian working group included the representatives of FA Ministry, Federal Border Guarding Service, FSK (successor of the KGB), and the administration of Chita and Amur provinces.

 

02/06

Moscow: Visit of military delegation headed by the Principal of PLAC Military Academy Colonel-General Syi Huji.

 

26 - 28/06

Prime Minister V. Chernomyrdin paid an official visit to China.

Result: a number of documents signed, among them:

 

- Economic and Trade agreement for 1997 - 2000 period,

- Economic and Trade Protocol for the year 1997

 

Chernomyrdin and Lee Peng agreed on sceduling regular annual meetings between Prime ministers of both countries.

 

 

AUGUST

Important!

1.Chinese Demarcation Group informed Vice-Governor of maritime territory Vladimir Stegniy on its changed approach: The Chinese dropped their claims to a sector of Russian territory alongside the Tumannaya (Tumen) river.

 

2. Agricultural Bank of China signed an Agreement with the AGROPROMBANK of Russia.

Major area of cooperation: financial coverage of imported and exported goods.

 

27/08

Moscow:

RF Deputy Prime Minister Jackob Urinson and Dep.Chairman of Central Military Couincil of China Lyu Huatsing signed a Protocol of the 6th bilateral intergovernmental comission on military-technical cooperation.

The signature of the protocol was follown by the signature of the contract between "Rosvooruzhenije" State Co. and the Central Military Council of China on the delivery of Russian military equipment to China for the sumtotal of $US 100 million.

 

06/11

The demarcation of the Eastern Section (4204 km long) of Russo-Chinese border is complete it includes 1182 border pillars, 24 buoys and 2 gate-signs.

 

10/11

Re. the above events, the Chairman of China Qiang Qeming declared "the coming of eternal peace" between Russia and China during his talks with President Yeltsin.

 

 

09 - 11/11

Beijing:

Official visit of B.Yeltsin to China (Summit #5).

on 10/11 Yeltsin and Qiang Qeming signed the Joint Russo-Chinese Declaration.

Major content points of the declaration:

- the basic principles of Russian-Chinese relationship

- some joint approaches to international problems

- joint approach to the border issues

 

Some more documents were signed among them:

1. Agreement on the Principles of Interregional Cooperation (which means cooperation on provincial and communal level)

 

2. Memorandum on Economic Cooperation

 

3. Memorandum on Technological Cooperation

 

4. Memorandum on Kovykta gas field of Irkutsk province

 

5. Memorandum on the projected gas pipeline to the Pacific coast of China.

 

6. Agreement on joint economic exploitation of ex-disputed islands in favor of local inhabitants (see 20/05/97). /In accordance with this agreement some of the islands went under Chinese juriediction while others remain Russian. Thus all joint economic activity in the islands and their aquatoria is to correspond to Russian or Chinese legal regulations. However each side is to protect the intersets of local inhabitants no matter what nationality they are/.

 

7. Agreement on cooperation in the field of diamond cutting (one more attempt to break a monopoly of De Beers)./According to that agreement, Russa would like to deliver small-size raw diamonds to China for cutting them. The project is aimed at creation of two diamond-cutting joint ventures. Some more projects on geological research, joint diamond trade and jewellery production were outlined as well./

 

First dep. Prime Min. Boris Nemtsov and Dep.Chairman of the State Council Ly Lantsing signed a Memorandum on projected gas pipeline from Kovykta field to Shanghai.

 

10/11

RF Central Bank and the Peoples Bank of China signed an Agreement on Cooperation in the field of credit organizations' activity inspection.

The agreement is aimed at exchange of information on banking systems and operations, as well as at creation of really effective system of cash payments avoiding complicated clearing and barter operations.

According to it, both banks are to collaborate in watching the activities of other banks and their branches in Russia and China.

 

10/11

Beijing:

An intergovernmantal agreement was signed re. the principles of collaboration between the Subjects of RF (provinces, territories, ethnic republics and ethnic districts) on the one hand and Chinese provinces, ethnic districts and federal cities on the other hand.

 

The parties planned to create a Coordination Comittee on Interregional Cooperation which will promote collaboration on provincial and communal level.

 

29/12

Beijing:

Rissian Minister of Nuclear Energy Victor Mikhailov signed a General Intergovernmental Contract on the construction of Lyangyuan nuclear power station for the sumtotal of $US 3 billion.It was financially the biggest international contract of Russia for the whole of the year 1997.

In accordance with this contract, the plants of RF Ministry of Nuclear Energy (MINATOM)are supposed to deliver to China 2 reactors and 2 turbines (1000 megawatts each), as well as to provide technical assistance in assembling the station.

There will be altogether 200 MINATOM plants involved in the project. The assembly work should start in 1999.The object should be ready by 2004-2005.

 

_________________________________________________________

 

1998

 

 

27/01

Official visit to China by Russian state military inspector and Secretary of Defence Council Andrey Kokoshin.

Kokoshin met with

- the Chairman (=Prime Minister) of State Council Ly Peng

- Dep.Chairman of Central Military Council Jan Vanyang,

- Defence Minister Chi Haotyang

- the Chairman of the Comittee for Science and Technology Qiao Gangchuan

- State Security Minister Jiang Qungvan

- Civil Security Minister Gao Syqui.

 

Kokoshin visited Qing Military district, as well as the navy base in Qihgdao; examined some samples of Chinese military equipment.

 

 

17 -18/02

Moscow:

Official visit by the Chairman of the State Council(Prime Minister) Ly Peng.

Talks with Yeltsin

Result: A number of agreements signed (predominantly on economic issues).

Also discussed: situation around Iraq

 

17 - 18/04

Irkutsk:

Visit by the delegation of the Office of the Constant Committee of Chinese National Assembly headed by Dep.Chairman of the above Committee Zhou Chengkui.

The Chinese delegation watched the work of the Legislative Assembly Of Irkutsk province.

 

Declaration of the head of Chin.delegation re. future economic and parliamentary collaboration with Irkutsk province with an emphasis on:

- joint project in Kovykta gas field

- Cis-Baykal potassium fields

- electroenergy export from Irkutsk prov. to China

 

 

26/05

Chinese ambassador in Russia Ly Fanglin visited Kaliningrad (Koenigsberg) enclave.

Met with governor Leonid Gorbenko.

Discussed: cooperation in the field of agriculture, ecology and culture.

Chinese group concentrated on the taxation privileges by which that Russian free economic zone is marked.

 

9 - 12/06

Visit to China by the delegation from the Transbaykal border district headed by Colonel-General Victor Voytenko.

Talks to the Commander-in-Chief of Provincial Military District of Inner Mongolia Major General Peng Xuipheng.

Subject: cooperation, security.

 

27/06

Joint session of boards of State Customs Committee(GTK) and Federal Border Guard Service (FPS) re.: the situation at Russian-Chinese border.

 

Major Problem duiscussed: illegal migration of Chinese nationals into Russia.

 

14/07

Short visit to China by RF Prime minister Sergei Kiriyenko.

 

Re.:

- Preparation for the first informal meeting of the leaders of Russia and China planned for Sep.98 (in Russia).

- Scedule of the above meeting.

 

23 - 28/07

Beijing: consulting meeting of the Chiefs of Staff of the armed forces of both countries.

Talks between the 1st Dep.Chief of Staff of RF Military Forces (VSRF) Col.-General Valery Manilov and the Chief of Staff of PLAC Phu Xuanyu and his deputy Sun Huangkai.

 

Major topics discussed:

- Military cooperation

- Situation in Asia-Pacific area and South Asia.

 

 

25/07

Official visit of FA Minister Primakov to China.

Talks to

- Chinese FA Minister Tang Xiansuan

- the Chairman of Mainland China Qiang Qeming

- Chairman of State Counsil (=Prime Minister)Zhu Zhunxi.

Vists to:

- the Sanya free economic zone

- Hainan island/prov.

Talks to the Vice-Governor of Hainan Ly Dunsheng

 

Major goal of the visit:

- Preparation for the first informal meeting of the leaders of Russia and China planned for Sep.98 (in Russia).

- "Strategic parthnership" of Ru and China in the 21st century.

 

15/09

Beijing:

A delegation Of VNESHEKONOMBANK signed an agreement with the Bank of China.

Topics discussed:

- Deliveruy of Russian equipment as a compensation of the USSR debts (accoding to the principles of Intergovernmental agreement of Feb.17,1998).

- Special account opened by the Bank of China for the financial operations connected with the delivery of Russian military equipment and knowhow to China.

(Projected commodity circulation for the future 7 years should reach 3 billion $US)

- Opening of a branch of VNESHEKONOMBANK in China

 

 

21/10

Visit of RF Defence Minister Igor Sergeyev to Beijing.

Talks to:

- Chinese Defence Minister Xi Haotyang

- Dep.Chairmen of Central Military Council Zhan Vanyang

Topics discussed:

- Russia's military downbuilding in Russo-Chinese border area.

- Bilateral military cooperation.

 

25 - 30/10

Official visit of the delegation of the State Duma headed by the Chairman of thr Duma Gennady Seleznev (communist fraction).

Talks to the leadership of China.

Visited Shanghai, Sheng-Zheng Special Economic Zone and Special Administrative district of Hong-Kong (talks with the chief of Hong-Kong administration Dung Xianghua; visit of the Innovation and High Technology Center)

Seleznev promised to revise Russian legislation on free economic zones.

 

 

7 - 14/11

Beijing:

Visit of RF Supreme Court Chairman Vyacheslaw Lebedev.

Collaboration agreement signed by Lebedev and the Chinese Supreme Court Chairman Syao Yang.

Some important points of the agreement:

- Information exchange

- Project on joint staff of lawyers.

 

 

22 - 24/11

Visit of The Chairman of "the People's Republic of China and the Secretary General of the Communist Party of China Qiang Qeming.

Talks with

1. President Yeltsin "without neckties" (for the first time in the history of bilatertal relations) This was the 6th meeting of the two leaders.

 

2. Prime-Minister Primakov (the new one)

 

3. The Chairman of the State Duma (Lower chamber of the Parliament of RF) Gennady Seleznev.

 

4. The Chairman of the Federation Counsil (Upper chamber of the Parliament of RF) Yegor Stroyev.

 

Result: the Declaration called "Russian-Chinese Relations at the edge of the 21st Century" which is a sort of demagogical description of the "coordinated apporoach" to major problems of modern world, "strategic tendencies of bilateral cooperation".

Some more concrete topics of the declaration were:

- nuclear arms downbuilding,

- joint support of UNO activities,

- joint support of globalization and regionalization processes in world economy,

- joint protest against economic pressing in politics,

- joint support of stabilization in Afghanistan & Kosovo,

etc...

 

Both parties also made a joint declaration on border issues in which they praized the completion of the demarcation of the Western sector of their joint border. Now for the first time in history there is a physically demarcated border between the two countries.

 

 

24/11

Official visit to Novosibirsk by The Chairman of Mainland China and the Secretary General of the Communist Party of China Qiang Qeming (invited by Novosibirsk Governor Victor Mukha).

Qiang Qeming visited the University campus and a number of the research centers of the Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences (RAN).

 

Background Information:

1. Novosibirsk is the capital of the Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences (RAN)where more than 20 scientific research centers are located.

 

2. China is the major foreign parthner of Novosibirsk province with the circulation of goods for the sumtotal of $US 36.200.000

 

Major products of Novosibirsk export to China are:

- machinery products

- metall rolling products

- timber products

 

Major products of Chinese export to Novosibirsk province are:

- consumer goods

- foods products

 

There are at least 111 ventures with Chinese investment predominantly engaged in trade and intermediaryactivity.

 

_________________________________________________________

 

ADDENDUM:

SOME USEFUL INFORMATION

 

 

1.BORDERS

 

The total length of the former Soviet-Chinese border was about 7500 km.

The total length of the Eastern Sector of Russo-Chin. border is 4300 km, 3700 km among them passing across lakes and rivers.

The total length of the Western Sector of Russo-Chin. border is 55km (Altai territory)

 

 

2.BILATERAL TRADE

 

The sources in RF Foreign Trade Ministry provide information that China occupies the third biggest trade parthner of Russia (after Germany and the USA)

 

The sources in the Customs Directorate of China indicate that for the period of 01/98 to 10/98 the commodity circulation between the two countries reached the sumtotal of $US 4.4 billion.

In the year 1997, the level of commodity circulation between the two countries was $US 6.1 billion (without taking into account the so-called "Shuttle Trade" or "Unorganized Trade").

The year 1997 was marked by an increased activity of the "Shuttle Trade operations. After the "Registration Bill" issued by Yeltsin in the middle of 1997, most of the "Shuttles" registrated their businesses and went on with their trade. (In accordance with the "Registration Bill", all the deals between Russia and China for the some over $US 10.000 should be made by registered companies).

During the years 1997 and 1998 the level of the so called "Shuttle Trade" was about $US 1.5 billion per year.

 

The last three years were marked with the increase of export of Russian machinery, aircrafts and know-how to China. Russia also delivers chemical fertilizers and ferrous metalls to China.

 

Russian specialists are involved in more than 13 construction and reconstruction projects for the sumtotal of $US 3 billion.

 

The sources in the Ministry of Foreign Trade of China indicate that there are more than 1000 Russian-Chinese joint ventures with Russian share. Most of those joint ventures are in the spheres of motor vehicle production, as well as in chemical, construction and food industry.

However an average share of Russian participaton in the above venmtures is below the average foreign share in all Chinese-foreign joint ventures.

 

The amount of all Russian investments in Mainland China is slightly above the sumtotal of $US 100.000.000 which is less than 0.01% of all foreign investment in Mainl.China.

 

Some competent Chinese sources indicate that the years 1997 and 98 were marked by the tendency of decrease of Russo-Chinese bilateral trade with an average decrease of 2.7% per annum. At the same time Russian import from China increased from 1997 to the year 1998 for the sumtotal of $US 1.4 billion (14.6% increase) while Russian export to China decreased for the sumtotal of $US 2.72 billion (9.8% decrease). However Chinese Ambassador in Russia expressed his optimism regarding bilateral trade mentioning that Russia has a great potential keeping in mind its natural and human resources (by uman resources he meant technical specialists and scientists, as well as the system of technical education and research in general).

 

As of today, Russia osccupies the 9th place in the Chart of the biggest trade parthners of Mainland China (after Japan, USA, S.Korea, Taiwan, Germany, Singapore, UK and the Netherlands).

 

 

3. RUSSIAN MILITARY BUILD-DOWN IN THE CHINESE FRONTIER

 

Ex-Defence Minister of RF General Igor Rodionov indicated that during the year 1998 Russia disbanded or significally cut down more than 300 military units in the area of Chinese frontier.

 

In accordance with the military build-down plan, the Transbaykal and Siberian Military Districts should merge by the year 1999. The center of the new Military District will be in Chita (See the map attached)

 

MAJOR SOURCE: RIA "NOVOSTI" HOTLINE

 

1/98 to 10/98 the commodity circulation between the two countries reached the sumtotal of $US 4.4 billion.